Products that delight or exceed customer expectations are well positioned to succeed in the market place. Adherence to some “design thinking” principles below help Product Managers define and build successful products. With a good grasp of the customer problem, follow the steps outlined below.
1. Great products are built by Product Managers that truly empathize with their customers. In order to do this, get into their skin, walk in their shoes to experience their pain/problem. You can either shadow them or actually do their job. Interview potential customers regarding their tasks – ask them the “why, what, when, how”. Question the complexity or time needed to complete a task.
2. Capture all your learning. Take pictures or videos. Process all the learning. Separate facts from opinions. Get clarification if required. Build “customer journey maps” that tell their story. Capture emotions during the journey map. It will guide you to the focus areas and “key moments of truth”.
3. Ensure that you have a clear definition of the problem you are going after in the customer journey map. Capture the outcomes and align on how success will be measured. Be aware of assumptions, get clarification if needed.
4. Creatively brainstorm ideas to solve the problem. Dream big. Use some brainstorming techniques like “Affinity Diagrams” with post it notes. Unleash the team’s imagination. Be patient and inclusive to diverse ideas.
5. Quickly build a prototype. Use simple tools. Speed and learning is more important than getting it right the first time. At this stage debate, experiment, fail, and learn. Sharpen ideas with feedback, reflection, and adjustment. It saves time and money in the long run.
6. Test the prototype with customers. Get a diverse sample of potential customers to collect a holistic set of opinions. Observe the customer using the product without participating and influencing reactions. Ask open ended questions.
7. Debrief together to share customer responses. Iterate changes in the prototype based on the comments. Take it out for another test drive with a different set of customers.
8. Once you feel satisfied that you have customer validation build the MVP (minimum viable product). Again, don’t wait for perfection. “Go with your gut”. Document all assumptions.
9. Take the MVP for a trial run with beta customers. Perceive customer reactions and learn from them.
10. Launch the product, gather and synthesize reactions, and improve. Repeat the process with another customer problem.
For more information on Design Thinking : http://dschool.stanford.edu/
You may use these steps after setting your strategy (See prior post “10 Steps to create an effective Product Strategy”). Once you have identified your strategy and assigned resources aligned with your budget, you need the right governance to ensure delivery against plan. Use these to identify, measure, track, and report on KPIs. A KPI is a metric that is used to evaluate factors that are crucial to the success of an organization or initiative.
1. Ensure that a KPI is measured in a given time frame, encourages appropriate action and ties accountability to a team.
2. For enterprises, establish a central team to govern across BUs or cross functional teams.
3. A KPI measures one or more critical success factors for a given initiative/project that is tied to the strategy.
4. It is a good practice to use both leading and lagging indicators. Leading indicators usually measure intermediate activities that drive performance. They are predictive and allow an organization to make adjustments if required. Lagging indicators are historical and lack predictive power as they show results at the end of a time period.
5. For an organization, one may use KPIs using a Balanced Scorecard approach that covers Product, Customer, Learning and Growth and Finance.
6. An executive sponsor is recommended for the success of tracking progress using KPIs. Ensure there is regular cadence of governance with the executive sponsor.
7. If the organization is large and has a number of KPIs covering different perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard, use metadata with ID #s to track and report. This metadata could be in a simple database.
8. Each KPI has an owner/steward who is accountable for all aspects of the KPI; definition, if quantitative, the formula to calculate it, the data source, reporting cadence, and target audience who will benefit from the information.
9. Baseline the current value of the KPI and establish a target to be reached within a given timeframe. Provide a rationale for the proposed target. This target is then mapped to the initiatives/projects that are linked to the strategy. This helps to “connect the dots” between strategies, initiatives, critical success factors, KPIs, and status.
10. After implementing the above, periodically refine and maintain relevance. Establish a change control process to adapt as you learn.
Reading Reference: Key Performance Indicators by David Parmenter
As a Product Management leader, I have pondered ways to measure the effectiveness, maturity, growth and development of a team. Here is what I thought would be a holistic approach for the same.
1 Talent Review – Evaluate the strengths and opportunities for growth for each member of the team based on their grade level. Based on this assessment, craft a training plan by quarter for the fiscal year. Leverage it to build a mentoring program within the team where senior leaders can mentor junior PMs. Perform a SWOT analysis to gauge domain expertise on the team.
2 Leadership Sponsorship – It is a good idea to engage sponsorship from senior management to ensure the success of a Product Management organization. Defined roles and responsibilities also help in ensuring there is accountability and commitment towards achieving results.
3 Processes, Procedures and Documentation – As with any function in an organization, especially as it scales, effective and efficient processes and tools for the product development lifecycle. Use of productivity and collaboration tools to foster team work and sharing.
4 Customer Engagement – Does the team have formal customer engagement forums before, during and after implementation? Do these include cross sections of the customer segment especially the influencers and decision makers?
5 Emerging Technologies Investment – Progressive Product Management organizations allocate time for exploring and prototyping new ideas, and concepts for products. These could include capabilities with growth opportunities in existing products or entirely new product segments. While doing so, sunset products that provide little value to the business.
6 Marketing Processes –Go to Market processes and procedures are well defined and executed. Analysis using sales tools that capture customer interactions during the sales lifecycle. Measurement and reporting of product revenue, pricing effectiveness, and ROI. Marketing mix strategy and plans are in place. Marketing campaigns are governed with ROI calculations.
7 Continuous Learning – A culture of continuous learning from industry peers, organizations, conferences, and competitive research.
8 Operating Rhythms – Well defined and implemented Operating Rhythms that provide the right level of governance for the product’s success. These include Product and Operations Reviews.
9 Metrics for evaluating Effectiveness – Internal and external surveys to collect feedback with areas for improvement.
10 Vibrant environment – One that fosters and encourages collaboration, sharing, growth and having fun. Group events to bring teams together or competitions among team members are ways to build a creative environment.
Use the above list to gauge where you are in the progress and improvement of your team.